The results of the survey titled “Lithuanian Map of Corruption 2008” were announced on March 4, 2009. As to the institutions expected to efficiently reduce corruption in Lithuania the respondents were most positive about mass media (49 per cent) and the Special Investigation Service (28 per cent) and the number of people determined to take part in anti-corruptive activities had increased.
The data of “Lithuanian Map of Corruption 2008” study showed that compared to previous years the number of residents determined to offer a bribe had decreased, but the number of company heads ready to do it had increased. Though the figures representing the number of cases when a bribe was requested/demanded, the resultancy of a bribe and the number of persons giving bribes showed increase, the number of respondents willing to participate in anti-corruptive activities had also increased and the applicants having reported about potential cases of corruption were considered to be brave and socially active people.
Most of the interviewed thought that the bribes assisted in solving problems, however most of them indicated that they had not given any bribe as there had been no situation inducing bribe giving.
Compared to the answers of respondents in 2007 the data of the latest survey showed that the number of residents and company heads, who asserted that bribe giving helped to resolve problems, went down. In 2007 85 per cent of residents and 78 per cent of company heads thought so, and in 2008 already only 75 and 51 per cent respectively. The comparison of the survey results for 2002, 2004 and 2005 showed that the opinion of residents on above issue had been changing (75, 73 and 78 per cent respectively), however the opinion of company heads remained comparatively stable (76, 75 and 74 per cent respectively).
The number of respondents determined to give a bribe in 2008 compared to 2007 decreased from 67 to 64 per cent among residents, however among company heads it went up from 42 to 51 per cent. The data of 2002, 2004 and 2005 surveys showed that the determination of the residents to give a bribe kept on changing (60, 59 and 68 per cent respectively), the same applies to company heads (63, 67 and 55 per cent respectively).
The survey also revealed reduction of the number of persons having given a bribe during last 12 months. In 2007 17 per cent of company heads and 28 per cent of residents stated they had given a bribe, and in 2008 the rates were 12 and 24 per cent respectively.
The respondents named five most corruption involving procedures in Lithuania: changing land parcel purpose of use (in the opinion of 48 per cent of company heads, 36 per cent of residents and 23 per cent of state and municipality servants); issuance of building and reconstruction permits (in the opinion of 48 per cent of company heads, 43 per cent of residents and 23 per cent of state and municipality servants); public procurement (in the opinion of 44 per cent of company heads and 20 per cent of state and municipality servants); admission for employment at a state/municipal institution (in the opinion of 40 per cent of company heads, 32 per cent of residents); and reinstatement of property rights (in the opinion of 31 per cent of residents and 18 per cent of state and municipality servants). The residents (31 per cent) also thought that corruption involving procedures were present in healthcare system and the company heads (37 per cent) considered the same applies to law adoption/amending.
As to experience in bribe giving 65 per cent of respondents indicated they had given bribes to healthcare staff (20 per cent at city and regional hospitals, 16 per cent at polyclinics, 15 per cent at national hospitals/clinics, 14 per cent at state medical treatment institutions), 18 per cent to the police (11 per cent to the road police, 7 per cent to other police institutions), 4 per cent to “Regitra”, 3 per cent at land management sections of county and region administration.
The respondents thought that the essential measures to reduce the corruption rate in the country were: introduction of more stringent sanctions for corruption related offences, raising the morale of the society, application of educational measures, improvement of laws subjecting them to anti-corruption assessment.
The survey was organised and conducted by the Lithuanian Chapter of Transparency International with participation of public poll companies RAIT, VILMORUS and VISEO.
The goal of the survey was to determine approaches of various social groups to institutional and geographic spread of corruption in Lithuania and their experience in corruption related instances as well as to evaluate the anti-corruption capacity of the society.
During the survey having lasted from September 2008 to February 2009 the state and municipality servants, residents and company heads were interviewed. In addition three rounds of discussions with participation of law enforcement, business, management and public administration experts were held.
The survey was financed by the embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Lithuania. Similar surveys were carried out in 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2007.
The survey data has been made public on the website www.transparency.lt